Sunday, May 24, 2020

Walt Disney Yen Financing - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1395 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/09/12 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? 1. Should Disney hedge its yen royalty cash flow? Why or why not? If so, how much should be hedged and over what time period? Yes, Walt Disney Company should hedge its royalty cash flow to protect against currency fluctuations. The company has revenues in Yen and does not have expenses in Yen. Thus it would be converting the Yen to Dollar and so is exposed to foreign exchange risk. The value of Yen has declined recently and it is difficult to forecast what the value could be in the future. Also currency speculation should be left to speculators and Disney should not play on the exchange rate. It would be wise to reduce the risk due to changes in exchange rate. The royalty receipts form a significant part of the pre tax income of Disney and any adverse movement would impact the financial position of Disney. The maximum amount and the period should be the Yen royalties that accrue to Disney. At the moment the amount is Yen 8 billion. The royalties are expected to grow for all times in the future and so the hedging should be for the maximum maturity available which is 10 years. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Walt Disney Yen Financing" essay for you Create order At the minimum, Disney may Disney may want to take enough money so as to reduce the debt to capitalization ratio back to 20% which now stands at 32%. The expected yen revenue stream of more than ? 8 billion every year would create 2. Assuming a hedge is desirable what hedging techniques available to the treasurer? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? The various hedging techniques available and the advantages and disadvantages are : 1. Currency Options – In this Disney could buy dollar yen options allowing Disney the right to buy dollars against yen at a predetermine rate or could sell Put options allowing Disney to sell yen for dollars at a predetermined rate. The advantages of options are †¢ It gives the right but not the obligation. If the Option is out of the money it need not be exercised. †¢ Options have an unlimited upside but limited downside so will help Disney benefit from favorable rate movement. †¢ Options can be taken for high amounts using small margin money The disadvantages are †¢ The time period for which options are available is till 2 years only. Beyond 2 years the market is not liquid †¢ Options require payment of upfront premium and so there will be a cash outflow 2. Forward Contracts – In this Disney could take a forward contract through a bank and sell the Yen forward for US Dollars at a rate that is fixed now. The advantages are †¢ Forward contracts can be tailored to the needs and requirements of Disney †¢ Longer term contracts are available and Disney could hedge up to 10 years †¢ The forward contracts can be cancelled and so provide some flexibility in the future years The disadvantages are The rate is locked at the time of contract and so there is so upside benefit †¢ The forward contracts need to be honored at maturity and so Disney has to settle it †¢ As mentioned in the case, the forward contracts would be against the overall exposure to Disney and so would tie up lines of credit †¢ Forward contracts are exposed to default risks of the counterparty 3. Futures – Futu res are standardized contracts which are traded on the exchanges. That is the only difference between forward contracts and futures. Disney could buy or sell contracts on the futures exchange and hedge its exposure. The advantages are : †¢ They are liquid as they are traded on the exchange †¢ Using futures would not tie up the lines of credit with the banks †¢ There is not much default risk as the futures are market to market daily. The disadvantages are †¢ As these are standardized, they cannot be customized to the requirements †¢ Require a margin deposit †¢ The futures contracts are available for shorter periods only 4. Swaps – Disney could swap its exposure in Yen with Dollars so that its inflow is in Dollars and it pays Yen The advantages are †¢ Swaps are off balance sheet financing with only disclosure in notes. Thus the balance sheet looks better †¢ The two parties to Swap could customize the terms to their requirements †¢ Swap enables parties to access capital markets which they may not able to do directly The disadvantages are †¢ High fees to be paid to the intermediaries †¢ It is difficult to get counterparties with a perfect hedge 4. Yen 15 billion 10 year bullet loan The advantages are †¢ The time period would be 10 years †¢ The interest rate would be the Japanese prime rate The disadvantages are †¢ Since it is a bullet loan it does not help in hedging the year on year income †¢ Requires lump sum payment on maturity It is more expensive than the SWAP transaction †¢ Has upfront fees Other hedging methods such as issuing longer maturity Eurodollar note was not feasible because of the Disney’s temporarily high debt ratio. Also, Euroyen bonds are not an option because Disney was not eligible to issue them under Japanese regulations. 3. In light of the various other techniques for hedging currency exposures why the market for currency swap does exists? Who benefits and who looses in such an agreement? Can a swap really create value for a corporation? And if so where does the value come from? What risks does the swap carry for the various parties involved? The market for swap exists since it allows parties to access market which they might not be able to do directly. Also swaps are customizable between parties and so are more flexible. The duration of swaps could be the duration of the exposure. These advantages have led to the creation of the swap market. Swaps also help in broadening the investor base. Companies could raise money in different currencies and then use a swap to get back to their home currency. Swap also helps in lowering the overall cost of borrowing as also enable firms to change their payment stream to either fixed or floating. When the swap is initiated for the first time, it creates value since only if value is created will the parties agree for a swap. The value comes for the differing credit ratings of the firms. In interest rate swaps, two firms come together to swap their interest obligations and each mat find that it is paying a lower rate than before. The risks that the swaps carry is the changes in the market after the swap has taken place. In case of an fixed for floating swap, if the floating rate rise then the firm will have to pay more. Or in the case of currency swap, if the exchange rate movement is adverse, then there could be a loss. There is also a default risk since the agreement is between two parties. The swaps are not liquid and once entered may be difficult to come out of. 4. Evaluate Goldman’s proposal for an ECU bond issue accompanied by an ECU/yen swap. How does its â€Å"all-in† yen cost compare to that of the proposed yen term loan? Is it superior to hedging using outright forwards? (Note: â€Å"all-in† cost generally refers to that discount rate which equates the present discounted value of the future debt service payments with the financing proceeds less front-end fees [i. . the internal rate of return], expressed as an annual rate). The calculations are in the excel file ( we use the IRR function to calculate the internal rate of return. The cash flow details are from the exhibits) . We get the following costs 1. 10 years ECU Eurobond Issue – YTM is 9. 46% 2. SWAP ECU/Yen – YTM is 6. 89% 3. Yen 10 year Loan – YTM is 7. 61% The ECU/Yen swap is the cheapest, t hough it does not include fees, but it may still be the cheapest. In the outright forwards market we find that the Yen is appreciating. This is obviously a better choice since this would mean that Disney would get more dollars. An exercise has been done, where the Yen payments made by Disney are converted to USD at the forward rates. Using the same discounting rate as the cost of Swap, the PV of the Yen payments in USD comes to $69. 27 million. This is higher than the present value of the amount that Disney gets from IBJ which is $58. 23 million. Also the Swap does not cover the entire exposure of Disney in Yen. Therefore if it is possible than outright forward hedge is better than other alternatives

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Environmentalism The Rise Of Industrialization As Spread...

In the last century, environmentalism has become an important and highly polarizing topic of social discourse as the rise of industrialization as spread across the world. More and more human beings have become aware of their impact on the environment, yet even this seems to be up for debate. However, those who are concerned with environmental issues like global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and pollution have gained a more clear and organized voice to not only raise awareness, but enact both higher and lower level change. Within these movements, different religious institutions (churches, denominations, temples) have used drawn on their religious narratives to understand what â€Å"creation care† and stewardship truly mean. The†¦show more content†¦To begin to understand the interaction between Judaism and environmentalism, formative narratives from the Torah must be investigated. However, this investigation need not journey passed the first narrative o f the creation story to understand the significant between humanity, creation, and the divine. Genesis 1 describes how God created the heavens and the earth, man and beast and then mandates man to rule over beast and creation (Genesis 1:28). Therefore, from the beginning there seems to be an established hierarchy of man over nature. In a seminal article discussing the connection between ecology and religion, Lynn White (1967) heavily critiqued the traditional interpretation of this mandate of man’s domination over the environment. White saw the connection between religion and the growing ecological as he stated: â€Å"What people do about their ecology depends on what they thing about themselves in relation to things around them. Human ecology is deeply conditioned by beliefs about our nature and destiny-that is, by religion†¦Since the roots of our trouble are so largely religious, the remedy must also be essentially religious†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (as cited in Benstein, 2006, p. 14). Religion, then, is a large part of the problem and historical has not been part of the solution. Although a Christian writer, White states that the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

CMTG Network Security Infrastructure Free Essays

Each Kudler Fine Foods location would be protected via higher end firewall recommended for small/medium size businesses with higher security requirements (Cisco, Watchguard, Barracuda). Each Kudler Fine Foods location, regardless of its geographical location, would have hi-speed internet access that would keep it connected to the headquarters location. Each firewall would be configured to provide maximum security for each location as well as Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection between the location and the headquarters. We will write a custom essay sample on CMTG Network Security Infrastructure or any similar topic only for you Order Now Headquarters location would host Main POS Database Server which would be synchronized with all other POS database servers every fifteen to thirty minutes. All of the synchronization would take place via VPN that has 1024bit encryption. Each geographical location would be able to access necessary data and files at the headquarters location via VPN at any time. Depending on the network authentication and network policies, not every person would have access to the same data. Since Kudler Fine Foods employs only two computer support specialists, we would recommend for the email to be hosted off site and be accessed either via Outlook Web Access (web-mail) or POP/SMPT/IMAP protocols with the Microsoft Outlook client. We also recommend that Email SPAM filtering be provided by the Email Host, but Kudler Fine Foods computer support staff should have access to email spam filters and manage them as they see fit best for the organization. Read this  Chapter 2 – Why Security is Needed We would also recommend for the Website to be hosted outside of the Kudler Fine Foods network but would recommend that Website’s database be synchronized with the network database via secure connection. Main reason for suggesting Email and Website services to be hosted off-site is security, downtime and support staff. Each firewall would handle IDS and IDP (intrusion detection and prevention service), as well as web access filtering, attachment filtering, traffic monitoring, virus scanning. Each computer and server would also run virus protection software. Firewall would be setup to shut down and block any suspicious network incoming/outgoing traffic in case of security breach and log it and email notify the computer support specialist (DoS, Hacker attacks, Virus outbreak). Firewall security updates would be done automatically and in the background and would provide security against latest threats. We believe that proposed network security infrastructure for Kudler Fine Foods would be secure, centralized, manageable by the small IT staff, reasonably priced to implement and easily upgradable and expendable in the future. How to cite CMTG Network Security Infrastructure, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Changes in Blood Pressure Classification

Question: Discuss about the Changes in Blood Pressure Classification. Answer: Introduction: Hypertension is the most prevalent disease in Australia. Hypertension mainly occurs due to irregular food habit and unhealthy lifestyle. Hypertension can be classified into different categories based on the level of blood pressure. There are varied complications and different treatment options are associated with each category of hypertension. In this essay case of Amanda and Jim is discussed. Amanda and Jim belong to different grades of hypertension. Hence, different goals should be set and different treatment should be given to Amanda and Jim. Educational plan for control of hypertension in case of Amanda and Jim is also discussed. This educational plan should comprise of education for food, physical exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption, psychological and social issues, blood pressure monitoring and medication. Prevalence of hypertension: High blood pressure ( 140/90 mmHg) is the most frequently treated disease in Australia. In Australia, approximately 9 out of 100 patients are hypertensive patients treated at general practitioner. Majority of these patients are with chromic hypertension and only 4.5 % patients are newly diagnosed patients. Prevalence of hypertension is slightly higher in men (34 %) as compared to the women (29 %). 50 % patients of hypertension are generally associated with other heart and cardiovascular complications and approximately 11 % are associated with diabetes. In Australia, it is observed that high blood pressure increases with the age of the person (ABS, 2013). Primary hypertension can be mainly caused due to the smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, unhealthy diet comprising of high salt and saturated fat and family history of high blood pressure. Secondary hypertension can be mainly caused due to kidney disease, endocrine disease and narrowing of aorta. Secondary hypertension can also be caused due to steroidal drugs, contraceptive pill and pregnancy (Harrison et al., 2017). Grading system for hypertension: Blood pressure can be graded in three categories like grade 1 (SBP 140-159 or DBP 90-99), grade 2 (SBP 160-179 7or DBP 100-109) and grade 3 (SBP 180 or DBP 110). Grade 1 hypertension mainly occurs due to circulatory, vascular or renal response to environmental and genetic stimuli. In grade 1 hypertension, there are structural and functional alterations in heart and arteries of the patient. There can be occurrence of more than one risk factors in grade 1 hypertension patients. There would not be target organ damage in patients with grade 1 hypertension. Amanda may be suffering through grade 1 hypertension. Grade 1 hypertension patients should be assessed to identify early stage cardiovascular marker in the patient and identify specific treatment to attenuate these markers (Trana and Giangb, 2014; Kim et al., 2017). Patients of grade 1 hypertension should be traded with antihypertensive drugs like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor an tagonists. For Amanda also same drug was prescribed. Grade 2 hypertension is considered as the progressive disease. Grade 2 hypertension can occur due to inability of heart and cardiovascular system to control blood pressure. This may occur due to the persistent structural and functional changes in the heart and arteries. Grade 2 hypertension can be associated with the more than two risk factors. If grade 2 hypertension doesnt controlled before certain level it may lead to the target organ damage. This susceptibility of the target organ damage in grade 2 patients should be identified through research studies. This would be helpful to manage the condition effectively and in cost effective manner. Jim might have grade 2 hypertension, because he was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In grade 2 hypertensive patients, there is moderate to high rise in blood pressure accompanied by at least two target organ damage. Hence in these patients antihypertensive drugs like ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocker s or beta blockers or calcium channel blockers or renin inhibitors can be used (Varounis et a., 2017; Yoon et al., 2015). Along with antihypertensive drugs, there should be administration of medication for target organ pathology. In patients with hypertension associated with atherosclerosis, there should be administration of statins which lowers levels of cholesterol. For Jim also, Lipitor was prescribed. Moreover, there was clear indication of organ damage in Jim. Patients with grade 3 hypertension are apparently associated with the target organ damage. Patients of this category generally exhibit sustained cardiovascular events irrespective of the level of blood pressure. Aging and association of other risk factors generally exaggerate condition of the grade 3 hypertensive patients and it may lead to the morbidity and mortality. Special emphasis should be given for reducing cardiovascular risk factors in grade 3 hypertensive patients. In patients with grade 3 hypertension, emergency antihypertensive drugs like nitrates should be administered along with the other antihypertensive drugs. In addition, medications for other risk factors should be administered in patients with grade 3 hypertension. Modifiable features of hypertension comprises of smoking, physical activity, low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride levels, obesity, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and psychological stress. Non-modifibale features of hypertension comprises of family history, age, gender and genetic factors (Materson et al., 2014). Nurse should set different goals for Amanda and Jim. Nurse should set goal for Amanda to reduce her blood pressure to SBP 130-149 or DBP 80-89. Nurse should set goal for Jim to reduce his blood pressure to SBP 140-159 7or DBP 90-99. Nurse should set goal for Jim to reduce his cardiovascular complications and manage his type 2 diabetes mellitus condition. Nurse should give special attention for diastolic pressure in case of Jim because there should not be more reduction in diastolic pressure in patients with diabetes. Educational Plan: Food Nurse should educate Amanda and Jim for dietary habit to control hypertension. Nurse should advise them to eat food comprising of fruits, vegetable, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and fish. Nurse should advise them to consume more amount of potassium and fewer amounts of saturated fats. Specifically Jim, should avoid sugar containing products and food containing saturated fatty acids because he was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Nurse should prepare diet plan for Amanda and Jim, in consultation with dietician. These products exaggerate blood pressure in hypertension patients. Nurse should advise them to consume not more than 2000 mg per day salt because salt has negative impact on hypertension and its related risks like diabetes and kidney disease (Chen et al., 2014, Khan et al., 2014). Physical exercise Nurse should advise them to keep control on their body weight. Due to increase in body weight, BMI also can increase. Increased BMI is one of the prominent risk factor for the hypertension. Amanda should give special attention to control her body weight because her BMI is 28. BMI in this range indicates, Amanda is overweight. For maintaining optimum body weight both Amanda and Jim should increase their physical activity. Amanda should be very particular about physical activity because she should reduce her body weight. Amanda and Jim should perform approximately 150 minutes aerobic activity per week. Physical activity on the regular basis would be helpful for Amanda and Jim for controlling hypertension, managing stress due to increased blood pressure, reducing risks associated with hypertension and reducing body weight. Nurse should prepare exercise schedule for Amanda and Jim in consultation with exercise physiologist (Lauziere et al., 2013; Zinat Motlagh et al., 2015). Smoking and alcohol consumption Nurse should advise them to avoid alcohol because alcohol can increase blood pressure in normal persons also. Nurse should advise them to avoid smoking because smoking can produce injuries to blood vessels and facilitate hardening of the blood vessels (Lauziere et al., 2013; ; Zinat Motlagh et al., 2015) Psychological education Nurse should advise them to live stress free life. They should practice muscle relaxation and deep breathing for living stress free life. Physical activity and sufficient sleep also would be helpful in reducing stress (Lauziere et al., 2013; ; Zinat Motlagh et al., 2015) Blood pressure monitoring Nurse should teach them to monitor blood pressure at home. She should educate them to check blood pressure prior to and after medications. Nurse should incorporate cardiovascular technologist for teaching them measurement of blood pressure. This would be helpful in assessing effectiveness of medications. Nurse should also advise them to consult doctor immediately, if they observed noteworthy variation in their blood pressure (Lauziere et al., 2013) Social education Both Amanda and Jim should link themselves to the different community healthcare societies. In these societies they can share their experience and gain knowledge about the disease. It would be helpful for them for self management of the disease. It would also be helpful in relieving psychological issues like stress and burden of the disease. They should consult social worker to get link themselves to community healthcare societies (Park et al., 2011). Education about Lipitor and Avapro Nurse should educate Jim for Lipitor consumption. Nurse should advise him to take this drug once daily at the same time every day. Nurse should advise him to take regular blood tests for cholesterol and triglycerides. Nurse should also advise him to take liver function test. Nurse should advise him to inform healthcare provider about Lipitor consumption, if doctor wishes to prescribe him medicines for acute illness. Nurse should inform him that there may be nausea, vomiting and joint pain due to consumption of this medication. Nurse should tell him that, he should report muscle pain, weakness, fever, swelling and change in color of urine during consumption of Lipitor (Barber et al., 2012). Nurse should educate Amanda that she should not consume Avapro, if she has diabetes. Nurse should tell her that she should not use Avapro, if she is dehydrated. Nurse should inform her that she should monitor blood pressure on regular basis during consumption of Avapro. If she didnt find improvemen t in blood pressure, she should consult doctor. She should not stop taking Avapro, even if she found improvement in her blood pressure. She should keep Avapro away from heat and light. Nurse should tell her that she should stop alcohol and potassium supplements while taking Avapro. Both Amanda and Jim should consult pharmacist to get more information about their respective drugs (Barber et al., 2012). Conclusion: In Australia, highest number of treatments at general practitioners is for hypertension. Male are more affected with hypertension as compared to the female. There are different treatment options are available for different grades of hypertension. Along with medications use change in food habit and lifestyle should be incorporated in the management of hypertension. Amanda and Jim are having different grade of hypertension. There should be different goals and education plan for Amanda and Jim in hypertension management. With effective implementation of medical, social, psychological and physical interventions, hypertension in Amanda and Jim can be effectively controlled. References: Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2013). Hypertension. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/322DB1B539ACCC6CCA257B39000F316C?opendocument. On 17.04.2017. Barber, P., Parkes, J., and Blundell, D. (2012). Further Essentials of Pharmacology for Nurses. McGraw-Hill Education. Chen, Y., Hu, S., Li, Y., Yan, B., Shen, G., and Wang, L. (2014). Systematic review of hypertension clinical practice guidelines based on the burden of disease: a global perspective. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 7(1), 52-9. Kim, S., Lewis, J.R., Baur, L.A., Macaskill, P., and Craig, J.C. (2017). Obesity and hypertension in Australian young people: results from the Australian Health Survey 2011-2012. Internal Medicine Journal, 47(2), 162-169. Khan, M.S., Bawany, F.I., Mirza, A., Hussain, M., Khan, A., and Lashari MN. (2014). Frequency and predictors of non-compliance to dietary recommendations among hypertensive patients. Journal of Community Health, 39(4), 732-6. Lauziere, T. A., Chevarie, N., Poirier, M., Utzschneider, A., Belanger, M. (2013). Effects of an Interdisciplinary Education Program on Hypertension: A Pilot Study. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(2), 12-19. Materson, B.J. (2014). Diagnostic evaluation: Classification of hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 8(9), 680-1. Park, Y., Song, M., Cho, B., Lim, J., Song, W., Kim, S. (2011). The effects of an integrated health education and exercise program in community-dwelling older adults with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 82(1), 133-137. Trana, T.M. and Giangb, N.M. (2014). Changes in blood pressure classification, blood pressure goals and pharmacological treatment of essential hypertension in medical guidelines from 2003 to 2013. IJC Metabolic Endocrine, 2, 110. Varounis, C., Katsi, V., Nihoyannopoulos, P., Lekakis, J., and Tousoulis, D. (2017). Cardiovascular Hypertensive Crisis: Recent Evidence and Review of the Literature. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 3(51), doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2016.00051. Yoon, S.S., Gu, Q., Nwankwo, T., Wright, J.D., Hong, Y., and Burt, V. (2015). Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012. Hypertension, 65(1), 54-61. Zinat Motlagh, S.F., Chaman, R., Ghafari, S.R., et al., (2015). Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran. International Journal of Hypertension, 897070, doi: 10.1155/2015/897070.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Digital versus Traditional media in advertising

Table of Contents Introduction Body The shift from print to online media Analogue to digital television Digital interactive media Conclusion References Introduction A radical change in the media industry is totally transforming the whole meaning of advertising. In light of this, advertising has grown from a mere sub-industry to a very critical sector in the business world. Changes in technology have drastically transformed the manner in which operations are conducted in the world.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This new wave of change has seen a rapid growth in the digital media as a way of advertising. The digital interactive forms of advertising have been availed at the very appropriate time considering the amazing rate at which globalization is affecting business operations across the world (Langdon, 1996). This essay is an a ttempt to explore into this field and see how the digital interactive media is transforming the whole concept of advertising. It seeks to delve into the commonalities and the differences that characterize the traditional forms of advertising and the digital interactive forms of advertising. This essay will therefore delve into these issues while paying greater attention to the manner in which the whole aspect of advertising is changing. Body Firstly, the traditional forms of advertising that dominated much of the last few decades include television, print and radio. These forms of advertising are considered traditional in the sense that newer methods of advertising have actually come up rendering them close to being obsolete. But really, can the digital forms totally take over the process of advertising without back up from the traditional forms? Well, that is subject to a whole range of debates. Nevertheless, it must be stated from the onset that the traditional forms of advertisin g cannot in any way be relegated into the dustbin of history as they really supplement the digital media advertising. The digital media technology has availed many options in the field of advertising that had not been seen before. Today, more than merely watching an advert on the television, one can download the information they have watched and even store it for future use. It is in light of these varieties that one feels the urge to dissect the whole concept of advertisement to see the realities that have characterized the field and recommend options to anyone seeking to launch any advertisement in the market.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Any advertisement should be designed taking in mind that consumers are inundated with a flood of information at their disposal. The modern digital forms of advertising have therefore an upper hand in this aspect compared to the traditional met hods which may not reach many people as expected (Langdon, 1995). The shift from print to online media Secondly, the world has continued to become much global as time progresses. This has seen multinational companies establish branches all across the world. The goods and services produced are therefore targeted for not only the local markets but for the whole world. This has created the need for advertisement forms that reflect of the diversity of the world and can reach all corners of the world where the goods are supposed to be utilized. The print media industry has for a long time been dominated by the newspapers as the major forms of advertising. Newspapers, however, have the disadvantage that they cannot be supplied across the whole world. A paper published in New York for instance may not be circulated past the United States. They are therefore limited by reach. However, with the advent of the internet and the radical shift that characterizes the whole sub-sector, most of thes e materials can now be accessed online by the consumers. Mobile phone technology is currently extensively used as an advertising media. The number of people reached in this case is very large considering that majority of people own cell phones. Major newspapers have today introduced online versions where readers can access all the information at the comfort of their mobile phones or personal digital assistants (PDAs). It is a common trend today for most people in the developed world to read their newspapers online other than buy the hard copies on the streets. The printed papers may therefore go out of market in a few years if the rapid adoption of technology across the world is anything to go by. It is interesting to note that the world’s population is mainly dominated by young people who are below 25. It is this same young population that extensively uses the internet. This is a clear indication in the great potential that lies in the field of online advertising.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Newspapers, however, still continue to enjoy a large readership especially among the educated and in the developing world where internet is still expensive. Research shows that educational levels are a great determinant of the readership of newspapers. People who have spent much time in school tend to read newspapers more than those who have not. It is normally quite hard to change people’s behavior patterns and this has the implication of limiting advertisers on the amount of population they would wish to reach. Magazines are very popular all over the world and have become a very rich ground for reaching many consumers. They also have the advantage of reaching specific groups of people in the community. For instance, beauty magazines mostly target young women and could therefore effectively convey adver ts relating to such women. Like in newspapers, magazines have also managed to create an online presence and most of the popular magazines are presently read online in addition to the conventional printed versions. However, the online media in the case of magazines has not gained much root as in newspapers. Many people still prefer to buy their magazines in the streets and shopping outlets as opposed to reading them online. This provides a suitable ground where the advertisers can harness many opportunities (Australian Interactive Media Industry Association, 2009). Analogue to digital television Thirdly, a radical change has been seen the world of television where operations have totally been transformed. Television has been use for decades as method of advertisement. Much of that use began in the later part of the 1950s when television sets were available in entirely the whole world. Televisions sets have for a long time been in the analogue form that availed viewer with various opt ions such as the free to air TV cable TV and pay-tv. Currently a shift is occurring from the analogue to the digital television, which has come with various modifications to the interest of the viewers.Advertising Looking for essay on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The digital form enables the viewers to access many channels and interact more. This allows people to control their viewing and hence the advertisements they get. Advertisers have seen a great opportunities in the digital television that were hitherto unavailable in the analogue. It is estimated that by 2014, 80% of television viewers in the world will be using the digital television sets (PRC,2006). This can provide a glimpse on the amount of information that will be conveyed to the people in the form of advertisements. Radio as a form of advertising is not left behind in light of the new changes that characterize the advertising industry. Even though the digital radio is still limited to only metropolitan areas in the world, it is forecasted that by 2014 it will be within reach to over half of the population in the world. Digital radio like digital television, offers interactive capabilities to the listeners. It is not just audio as in the analogue case as it combines visual abili ties to provide the listeners with additional features such as graphics, animation and slide shows. Digital radio will therefore be used to offer better advertising services to the listeners. Presently, however, the analogue radio will continue to reign supreme in advertisements. It can be seen that both the traditional and the digital forms of advertisements are actually merged up. They continue to operate as a unit by supplementing each other (Commercial Radio Australia 2009). The dissatisfaction realized from television advertising comes from the fact that at any given time, the advertiser is not sure about who is actually watching. It therefore heavily relies on a matter of chance such that if the advertiser is lucky, then the intended target will be watching. Otherwise the whole advert becomes useless. Another problem also arises out of the fact that the interests of people who watch television are not usually the same. A discomfort therefore arises when an advert that only fav ours a particular category of people comes up. Advertisements by television costs more than the interactive forms of advertising. Their use is therefore becoming more and more limited to specific products. Digital interactive media Digital interactive media is used to refer to the modern digital systems that are computer based that offer various options to the users. Such options include animation facilities, audio-visual, text and graphics (Lane, W R, King, KW Russell, JT 2005). The advertising industry has greatly benefited from the introduction of new media in the market. Large companies are currently managing multi-billion dollar projects in this field. The digital interactive media has totally revolutionized the whole process of advertising (Digital Radio Plus 2010). Advertising companies now do more than mere advertising. They have become media companies as well. The revenue these companies receive today is much higher in comparison to the earlier days when they depended on t he traditional media. The modern media, in addition to advertising, offers the consumers links through which they can purchase the products being advertised using e-commerce (The Pew Research Center for the People the Press 2006). By simply clicking a mouse, one can receive supplier at their doorstep courtesy of the new media. This revolution enables people to interact and relate to each other more and more. Such interaction further increases the number of transactions conducted between the people. That is of much concern to the advertisers who intend to increase the sale turnover. While it can be well argued that advertisements by television have continued to increase in the recent past, the impact is not substantially felt. Television channels have become so many and people can easily shift from one to another. This implies that the image of the products advertised on the various channels is not left in the minds of the viewers (Langdon, J 1995). They forget entirely everything. That is what creates the need for interactive media. Here, one can click a link on the screen to get more information about the product being advertised. Attention is therefore drawn on the particular product after which the user may opt to purchase it. The use of digital advertising is no longer experimental like it was few years ago. It is gaining root full blast. All the changes seen are actually necessitated by the fact that the consumers demands are changing. People today want mobile things, immediate and with the ability to control what they consume from the media. As such, it becomes impossible to offer such people the adverts in the traditional methods that will require one to be glued to their television sets or radio. Gone are the days when families would sit in their living rooms in the evenings with all eyes glued to the television. The manner in which broadband advertising presents itself is very compelling to the viewers. The adverts are strategically placed on the ver y sites where people frequent to obtain information. That is when the ad pops up. One is tempted to click on the link to reveal the information, which in many cases will be in the form of motion pictures and videos. Moreover, many advertisers today have the practice of offering interactive media in cases where other media is used. For instance, when reading magazines an advert will show you the specific website of the producer where you can obtain more information about the product. The same is normally seen in television where the adverts will encourage the viewers to log into the websites given on the screen to find more information about the products. Today, many advertisers have capitalized on the great use of the social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace. Thorough these sites, they can easily reach millions of consumers that frequent them. They also take advantage of the fact that majority of the people who use the sites are young. It is therefore common to see adverts about products used by young people frequently popping up on the screens when one is logged in (Langdon, J 1996). Several multinationals have heavily invested on the interactive advertising methods and are gradually shunning the traditional ways. The giant consumable goods manufacturer Proctor Gamble has indeed been ahead in adopting broad broadband adverts for its products that are available all over the world. The company has realized that young people shun traditional adverts and is therefore investing heavily in online ads to reach millions of youth across the globe. An average person in America is bombarded with so many advertisements in a single day. This flood of information ranges from billboards to adverts in subway trains. The avalanche of such information may not therefore have any lasting impression on the minds of the population. As such, better ways have to be sought to create adverts that may leave a lasting image on the mind s of the people and compel them to buy the products. That is where the interactive media comes in handy. It is therefore impressive to note that many advertisers have adopted this option. Even though the internet still accounts for only a small percentage of the total adverts in the world, many companies are beginning to join the bandwagon. It has bee realized that the internet may not be very efficient in the case of a new product that is still trying to build a brand name. Nevertheless, it can widely be used for entirely all products that are used in the world. Studies have further indicated that the next 5 years will see tremendous changes in the advertising industry, more than what has been realized in the last 50 years. This is courtesy of the better forms of advertising, increasingly educated, empowed consumers, and better advertisers who manage the whole scene quite well. The popularity of the digital media is not only gaining predominance out of its superior quality but as well as the lower costs associated with it (Australian Government, 2011). Every supplier in the market wants to minimize the costs involved in the operations.IBM for instance has managed to reduce its expenses on advertisement by 20 percent in the last four years (Russel,2005 and Pew Research Center 2010). This is because of the tireless effort by the company to invest heavily in the digital media advertisement. A survey of 1500 consumers and 50 advertising experts reveals very interesting outcomes about the manner in which the advertising industry behaves (Journalism.org,2010). Certain market drivers that determine the success of all the adverts that are posted in the market govern the industry. One such driver is the consumer choice and control. The report indicated that consumers mostly prefer advertisement media that give them the ability to control and manage whatever they view or hear (Magazines.org, 2010). As a result, it implies that they actually prefer the digital methods that offer them such abilities. Another det erminant in the market is creativity. It should be remembered that the advertisement industry is very dynamic and it therefore demands only those who can come up with better and improved ideas every day. It does not give room for those boring daily adverts that were often heard on radio and seen on televisions sets a few years ago. Conclusion The digital interactive forms of advertisement that are cropping up currently are actually the sure way of staying competitive in the increasingly competitive market that is characterized by globalization and other market changes seen across the world. The digital forms are certainly better in terms of giving the customers variety and giving the advertisers an opportunity to track the response of the market to the goods being advertised. However, the traditional forms continue to supplement these new methods. They go hand in hand in giving the consumer the best they can have. It is therefore important that both the forms be adopted for the succ ess of any business. References Australian Government n.d., Popular Australian television, Culture Portal. Web. Australian Interactive Media Industry Association (AIMIA) 2009, ‘Digital Services Index TM’. Web. Commercial Radio Australia 2009, ‘FAQs’. Web. Digital Radio Plus 2010. Web. Journalism.Org 2010, How internet and cell phone users have turned news into a social experience, PEW Research Center. Web. Lane, W R, King, KW Russell, JT 2005, Advertising procedure, 16th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Langdon, J 1996, ‘The history of radio in Australia: excerpts from a lecture given by Dr Jeff Langdon’, Radio 5UV. Web. Langdon, J 1995, ‘A history of community broadcasting,’ Radio Adelaide. Web. Magazines.org, ‘What you need, when you need it’. Web. Pew Research Center 2010, State of the news media 2010, Pew Research Center Publications. Web. The Pew Research Center for the People the Press 2006, Online papers modest ly boost newspaper readership, PEW survey reports. Web. This essay on Digital versus Traditional media in advertising was written and submitted by user Brody L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Sumatra Earthquake of December 26, 2004

The Sumatra Earthquake of December 26, 2004 A minute before 8 oclock in the morning local time, a colossal earthquake began to shake the northern part of Sumatra and the Andaman Sea to its north. Seven minutes later a stretch of the Indonesian subduction zone 1200 kilometers long had slipped by an average distance of 15 meters. The moment magnitude of the event was eventually estimated as 9.3, making it one of the largest recorded earthquakes since seismographs were invented around 1900. The shaking was felt throughout southeastern Asia and caused devastation in northern Sumatra and in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands. The local intensity reached IX on the 12-point Mercalli scale in the Sumatran capital of Banda Aceh, a level that causes universal damage and widespread collapse of structures. Though the intensity of shaking did not reach the maximum on the scale, the motion lasted for several minutes- the duration of shaking is the main difference between magnitude 8 and 9 events. A large tsunami triggered by the earthquake spread outward from off the Sumatran coast. The worst part of it washed away whole cities in Indonesia, but every country on the shore of the Indian Ocean was also affected. In Indonesia, some 240,000 people died from the quake and tsunami combined. About 47,000 more people died, from Thailand to Tanzania, when the tsunami struck without warning during the next few hours. This earthquake was the first magnitude-9 event to be recorded by the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), a worldwide set of 137 top-grade instruments. The nearest GSN station, in Sri Lanka, recorded 9.2 cm of vertical motion without distortion. Compare this to 1964, when the machines of the World Wide Standardized Seismic Network were knocked off scale for hours by the March 27 Alaskan quake. The Sumatra earthquake proves that the GSN network is robust and sensitive enough to use for expanded tsunami detection and warnings if the right resources can be spent on supporting instrumentation and facilities. The GSN data includes some eye-popping facts. At every spot on Earth, the ground was raised and lowered at least a full centimeter by the seismic waves from Sumatra. The Rayleigh surface waves traveled around the planet several times before dissipating. Seismic energy was released at such long wavelengths that they were a substantial fraction of the Earths circumference. Their interference patterns formed standing waves, like the rhythmic oscillations in a large soap bubble. In effect, the Sumatra earthquake made the Earth ring with these free oscillations like a hammer rings a bell. The notes of the bell, or normal vibrational modes, are at extremely low frequencies: the two strongest modes have periods of about 35.5 and 54 minutes. These oscillations died out within a few weeks. Another mode, the so-called breathing mode, consists of the whole Earth rising and falling at once with a period of 20.5 minutes. This pulse was detectable for several months afterward. (A startling paper by Cinna Lomnitz and Sara Nilsen-Hopseth suggests that the tsunami was actually powered by these normal modes.) IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, has compiled scientific results from the Sumatra earthquake on a special page with plenty of background  information. The U.S. Geological Survey also offers a number of beginner and non-technical resources about the quake. At the time, commentators from the scientific community decried the absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian and Atlantic oceans, 40 years after the Pacifics system began. That was a scandal. But a greater scandal was the fact that so many people, including thousands of supposedly well-educated first-world citizens who were there on vacation, just stood there and died as the clear signs of disaster arose before their eyes. That was a failure of education. A video about the 1998 New Guinea tsunami- was all it took to save the lives of a whole village in Vanuatu in 1999. Just a video! If each school in Sri Lanka, each mosque in Sumatra, each TV station in Thailand had shown such a video once in a while, what would the story have been instead that day?

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The practices of Human Resource Management in the organization Research Paper

The practices of Human Resource Management in the organization - Research Paper Example Methods of study For this study, the HR department was explored in detail in terms of understanding its core activities, practices and its position in overall organizational setup. This was done through personal interviews conducted with HR personnel as well as managers in other departments like finance, technology, operations and facilities. These questions were aimed at understanding the goals and objectives of HR team and their relationship with organizational objectives. In a top-down approach the general information related to HR function was gathered in a manner that paved way to put forth questions to assess the effectiveness of these practices as well as the HR function. Interviews: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with managers from core departments within the organization, which included the HR, technology, operations, facilities and finance teams. These interviews were semi-structured to allow further inquiry based on the responses from managers, which was extremely helpful to obtain individual insight and experiences related to contribution and involvement of HR personnel Questionnaire: Based on the responses from the interviews, a small questionnaire was prepared to assess the effectiveness of HR practices and their impact on overall employee wellbeing and progress. The questionnaires were graded on Likert scale, in which respondents graded their experience on a scale from 1 to 5. The responses to these questions will help in eliciting objective as well as subjective information that will highlight overall performance and effectiveness of HR function. 3. Findings: Findings from both interviews and questionnaires were interpreted in terms of basic HR functions. i). Acquisition: Interview with the HR manager highlighted the role of HR in... From this research it is clear that the human resource management plays a significant role in sustaining organizational performance through acquisition, motivation, maintenance and development of human resources of the organization. These goals are accomplished through specific policies, procedures and practices framed by the HR function. In order to successfully accomplish these goals, the HR function has to be actively involved in strategic planning processes with all other departments, as well as oversee implementation of these policies and procedures. For this, it is important that HR personnel work closely with other departments/functions at the ground level in order to assess the effectiveness of HR-related strategies and identify the issues and gaps. Based on the study conducted in the IT firm explained in present context, HR department plays similar role at strategic level; however, its involvement has to be intensified at implementation level by partnering with each departme nt. The HR department’s role has to be extended from strategic planning level to implementation process in order to accomplish organizational goals with respect to human resources, such as improved employee motivation, commitment, morale and continuous learning and developmental opportunities. Though the HR is already involved in accomplishing these goals, its practices have to be modified to achieve better and long-lasting outcomes related to these goals.